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Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease is a malformation of the heart that is present at birth. Congenital heart disease also known as congenital defects can involve the interior walls of the heart, valves in the interior of the heart, or the arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart or out to the body. These defects effect the normal flow of blood through the heart. Congenital heart disease is often divided into two types: cyanotic congenital heart disease and non-cyanotic congenital heart disease. Cyanotic is a condition in which the skin gets a blue color which is caused by a lack of oxygen. The following lists cover the most common congenital heart diseases

Cyanotic Congenital heart disease

  • Transposition of the great arteries: In this congenital heart defect, the positions of the aorta and the pulmonary artery are reversed or transposed. In transposition the aorta arises from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle instead of the right which prevents oxygen-rich blood from reaching the body. Surgery is used to repair this condition.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot: It is an umbrella term for four heart defects which are:
    • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    • Pulmonary valve stenosis
    • A misplaced aorta
    • A thickened right ventricular wall

    In this defect the blood travels across the hole from the right ventricle to left ventricle and out into the body through aorta. Obstruction in the pulmonary valve prevents the normal amount of blood from being pumped to the lungs. This defect usually results in an insufficient amount of oxygen-rich blood reaching the body.

  • Ebstein's anomaly: This Congenital heart disease involves a malformed tricuspid valve that does not properly close to keep the blood flow moving in the right direction resulting in the blood to leak back from the lower to upper chambers on the right side of the heart. This defect leads to heart failure and irregular heartbeats.
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Usually found in babies, this condition occurs when the left side of the heart which consists of the aorta, the aortic valve, left ventricle and the mitral valve are underdeveloped. As a result of this defect the baby's body doesn't receive enough oxygen causing cyanosis, difficulty in breathing and being unable to feed. Treatment option for this defect is a heart transplant.
  • Truncus arteriosus: This is a congenital heart disease in which the pulmonary artery and aorta which are usually two separate arteries merge into one single large vessel arising from the two bottom of the right and left ventricles. The blood leaving the heart can go either to the heart or the lungs making the heart work very hard and over time this extra blood flow damages the blood vessels in the lungs causing pulmonary hypertension.

Non- Cyanotic Congenital heart disease

Symptoms of Congenital Heart Disease

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