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Heart Valve Disease

The four valves of the heart keep blood flowing in the correct direction and these valves open and close once during each heartbeat. When the valves don't open or close properly, it disrupts the blood flow through the heart to your body. When a valve does not open properly, this condition is known as stenosis. The condition in which a valve doesn't close properly and can leak is called regurgitation . Atresia is a condition in which the heart valve lacks an opening for the blood to pass through.

Different types of Heart Disease are

  • Aortic valve disease: It is a condition in which the valve between the left ventricle and the main artery to your body known as the aorta doesn't work properly. Aortic valve disease can be present at birth. There are two kinds of aortic valve disease:
    • Aortic stenosis: The valve opening of the aorta is narrowed in this condition.
    • Aortic regurgitation. In this condition, the valve in the aorta doesn't close properly, causing the blood to flow back into the left ventricle.
  • Mitral valve disease: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle doesn't work properly in this condition. Different types of Mitral valve disease are:
    • Mitral valve regurgitation: The flaps of the mitral valve weaken, resulting in the blood to leak backward into the left atrium of the heart. Mitral valve regurgitation can result in heart muscle damage. One of the reason for blood leakage is mitral valve prolapse, in which the flaps bulge back into the left atrium as the heart contracts.
    • Mitral valve stenosis: The mitral valve opening is narrowed in this condition.
  • Pulmonary valve disease: It refers to a disorder of the heart's pulmonary valve, which keeps the blood from the heart flowing properly to the lungs. A leaky pulmonary valve is known as pulmonary regurgitation whereas a narrowed pulmonary valve is known as pulmonary stenosis
  • Tricuspid valve disease: It is a condition in which the valve between the right ventricle and right atrium doesn't function properly. This disease often occurs with other heart valve problems.

    Several types of tricuspid valve defects are

    • Tricuspid valve regurgitation: When the valve doesn't close properly and blood flows back into the heart's right atrium it causes a condition called Tricuspid valve regurgitation.
    • Tricuspid valve stenosis: In this condition, the tricuspid valve is narrowed thus the amount of blood flowing through it from the right atrium to the right ventricle is decreased.
    • Tricuspid atresia: In this condition a solid wall of tissue blocks the flow of between the right heart chambers.
    • Ebstein's anomaly: It is a condition in which a malformed tricuspid valve sits lower than normal in the right ventricle, causing blood to flow back into the right atrium.

Causes for Heart Valve Disease are

  • Heart Conditions
  • Age related changes
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Infections

Symptoms associated with Heart Valve Disease are

  • A heartbeat sound that is not usual known as a heart murmur.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Too weak.
  • Pressure or weight in your chest
  • Heart palpitations
  • Swelling in your ankles and feet.

Treatments for heart valve disease are

  • Balloon valvotomy: It is used to treat narrowed valves. In this procedure a catheter with a balloon is inserted in the tip of the arm or groin and then is guided into the heart. The balloon is inflated in the valve which opens the valve up. The balloon is then deflated and removed. Balloon valvuloplasty has a shorter recovery time than surgery. The procedure works as well as surgery for patients who have mitral valve stenosis.
  • Heart valve Replacement: when heart valves can't be repaired they are usually replaced. This surgery involves removing the faulty valve and replacing it with a man-made or biological valve made from animal or human heart tissue.
  • Heart Valve Repair: Heart valve repair is a surgical or minimally invasive procedure which corrects a heart valve that is not functioning properly. Repairing a heart valve involves the heart valve leaflets that open and close to pump blood through the heart.

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